Muscles

Twenty muscles give the foot its shape, support and the ability to move. The main muscles of the foot are:

  • the tibilias posterior, which supports the foot's arch
  • the tibilias anterior, which allows the foot to move upward
  • the tibilias peroneal, which controls movement on the outside of the ankle
  • the extensors, which help raise the toes, making it possible to take a step
  • the flexors, which help stabilize the toes.

Tendons and Ligaments

Many tendons attach these muscles to the bones and ligaments that hold the bones together to maintain the foot's arch.

The main tendon of the foot is the Achilles tendon, which runs from the calf muscle to the heel. The Achilles tendon makes it possible to run, jump, climb stairs and stand on your toes.

The main ligaments of the foot are:

  • plantar fascia – the longest ligament of the foot. The ligament, which runs along the sole of the foot, from the heel to the toes, forms the arch. By stretching and contracting, the plantar fascia helps us balance and gives the foot strength for walking.
  • plantar calcaneonavicular ligament – a ligament of the sole of the foot that connects the calcaneus and navicular and supports the head of the talus.
  • calcaneocuboid ligament – the ligament that connects the calcaneus and the tarsal bones and helps the plantar fascia support the arch of the foot.