Rose hips (Rosa canina)

Origin: The seed pods of roses

What we know: Rose hips powder – a rich source of vitamin C – appears to decrease inflammation by inhibiting production of inflammatory proteins and enzymes, including COX-1 and COX-2.

Studies: Recent animal and in vitro studies have shown that rose hips have anti-inflammatory, disease-modifying and antioxidant properties, but results of human trials are preliminary. A 2008 meta-analysis of three clinical trials showed rose hips powder reduced hip, knee and wrist pain by about one-third in nearly 300 osteoarthritis patients and a 2013 trial found that conventional rose hips powder relieved joint pain almost as effectively as an enhanced version. In a 2010 trial of 89 patients, rose hips improved rheumatoid arthritis symptoms better than a placebo.

Dosage: Capsules, powder: up to 5 g daily in divided doses for capsules. Most research used a standardized form of rose hips from Denmark sold under the names Litozin and Hyben Vital.