Green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliliculus)

Origin: Extract from a New Zealand mussel

What we know: Mussels are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, and by reducing production of leukotrienes (inflammatory molecules) and prostaglandins, may have the same anti-inflammatory effects as fish oil.

Studies: Results of both human and animal studies have been mixed. A 2006 Clinical Rheumatology review found benefit for both osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis in two of five clinical trials. A 2008 review of trials for OA found benefit when green-lipped mussels were added to conventional therapies. Unlike NSAIDs, which can harm the stomach, green-lipped mussel extract may help heal ulcers.

Dosage: Capsules, extract: 300-350 mg three times daily of extract for RA; 900-1200 mg daily for OA.